Many pathologies, congenital defects, and traumatic injuries are untreatable by conventional pharmacologic or surgical interventions. Regenerative engineering represents an ever-growing interdisciplinary field aimed at creating biological replacements for injured tissues and dysfunctional organs. The need for bioengineered replacement parts is ubiquitous among all surgical disciplines. However, to date, clinical translation has been limited to thin, small, and/or acellular structures. Development of thicker tissues continues to be limited by vascularization and other impediments. Nevertheless, currently available materials, methods, and technologies serve as robust platforms for more complex tissue fabrication in the future. This review article highlights the current methodologies, clinical achievements, tenacious barriers, and future perspectives of regenerative engineering.
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