Relaxor based ferroelectric single crystals for electromechanical actuators

Seung Eek Park, Venkata Vedula, Ming Jen Pan, Wesley S. Hackenberger, Patrick Pertsch, Thomas R. Shrout

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


The piezoelectric properties of relaxor based ferroelectric single crystals, such as Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 - PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) were investigated for electromechanical actuators. In contrast to polycrystalline materials such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT's), morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) compositions were not essential for high piezoelectric strain. Piezoelectric coefficients (d33's) > 2500 pC/N and subsequent strain levels up to >0.6% with minimal hysteresis were observed. Crystallographically, high strains are achieved for <001> oriented rhombohedral crystals, though <111> is the polar direction. Ultrahigh strain levels up to 1.7%, an order of magnitude larger than those available from conventional piezoelectric and electrostrictive ceramics could be achieved, being related to an E-field induced phase transformation. Strain vs. E-field behavior under external stress was also much superior to that of conventional piezoelectric ceramics. High electromechanical coupling (k33) > 90% and low dielectric loss <1%, along with large strain make these crystals promising candidates for high performance solid state actuators.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)136-144
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 1998
EventSmart Structures and Materials 1998 SMart Materials Technologies - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Mar 4 1998Mar 5 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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