Distributed energy resources like photovoltaic (PV), fuel cells (FCs), and others are receiving more and more attention as a solution to the rise in residential energy consumption. In this paper, a reliability-based energy management model is proposed for residential buildings with local generation units. The proposed model studies the contingency analysis of the hybrid system of the residential buildings considering demand response (DR) programs under different participation rates of residents in DR. Along with accounting for the energy flows across the various components of the hybrid energy system, the analysis of PV power output utilization to sale of power to the main grid, battery charging, and demand supply are also taken into consideration. The proposed model aims to choose the best operating strategies while ensuring the system is well-functioning with energy supplement costs as the objective function to be reduced. In addition to the optimal electric and thermal balances, findings allow for the reasonable deduction of the PV module and fuel cell forms. A numerical example is implemented and examined to confirm the practicality of the suggested approach. From various viewpoints, the best operational techniques are determined and contrasted, where the findings are analyzed considering the reliable operation of the system. Applying DR with different participation rates has varying effects on energy management during contingency occurrences at off/on-peak hours. A 30% DR participation during off-peak hours reduces daily energy supplement cost by roughly one third. During on-peak hours, DR participation reduces energy supplement cost by over 76%.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Building and Construction
- Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
- Mechanics of Materials