trans-4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is a major peroxidation product of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The reaction of HNE with DNA produces four diastereomeric 1,N2-γ-hydroxypropano adducts of deoxyguanosine (HNE-dG); background levels of these adducts have been detected in tissues of animals and humans. There is evidence to suggest that these adducts are mutagenic and involved in liver carcinogenesis in patients with Wilson's disease and in other human cancers. Here, we present biochemical evidence that in human cell nuclear extracts the HNE-dG adducts are repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. To investigate the recognition and repair of HNE-dG adducts in human cell extracts, we prepared plasmid DNA substrates modified by HNE. [32P]-Postlabeling/HPLC determined that the HNE-dG adduct levels were ∼1200/106 dG of plasmid DNA substrate. We used this substrate in an in vitro repair-synthesis assay to study the complete repair of HNE-induced DNA adducts in cell-free extracts. We observed that nuclear extracts from HeLa cells incorporated a significant amount of α[32P]dCTP in DNA that contained HNE-dG adducts by comparison with UV-irradiated DNA as the positive control. Such repair synthesis for UV damage or HNE-dG adducts did not occur in XPA cell nuclear extracts that lack the capacity for NER. However, XPA cells complemented with XPA protein restored repair synthesis for both of these adducts. To verify that HNE-dG adducts in DNA were indeed repaired, we measured HNE-dG adducts in the post-repaired DNA substrates by the [32P]-postlabeling/HPLC method, showing that 50-60% of HNE-dG adducts were removed from the HeLa cell nuclear extracts after 3 h at 30 °C. The repair kinetics indicated that the excision rate is faster than the rate of gap-filling/DNA synthesis. Furthermore, the HNE-dG adduct isomers 2 and 4 appeared to be repaired more efficiently at early time points than isomers 1 and 3.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes