Residual stress development in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/ZrO2/SiO2 stacks for piezoelectric microactuators

E. Hong, R. Smith, S. V. Krishnaswamy, C. B. Freidhoff, S. Trolier-McKinstry

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The residual stress of multilayers in piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems structures influences their electromechanical properties and performance. This paper describes the development of residual stress in 1.6 μm Pb(Zr0.52,Ti0.48)O3 (PZT)/0.3 μm ZrO2/0.5 μm SiO2 stacks for microactuator applications. The residual stresses were characterized by wafer curvature or load-deflection measurements. PZT and zirconia films were deposited on 4-in. (100) silicon wafers with 0.5 μm thick thermally grown SiO2 by sol-gel processes. After the final film deposition, the obtained residual stress of PZT, ZrO2, and SiO2 were 100-150, 230-270, and - 147 MPa, respectively. The average stress in the stack was ∼ 80 MPa. These residual stresses are explained in terms of the thermal expansion mismatch between the layers and the substrate. Load-deflection measurements were conducted to evaluate localized residual stresses using released circular diaphragms. The load-deflection results were consistent with the average stress value from the wafer curvature measurements. It was found that more reasonable estimates of the stack stresses could be obtained when mid-point vertical deflection data below 6 μm were used, for diaphragms 0.8-1.375 mm in diameter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)213-221
Number of pages9
JournalThin Solid Films
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jul 3 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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