Retinal Venous Occlusive Disease

Ingrid U. Scott, Michael S. Ip

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disease following diabetic retinopathy and has three distinct types based on the site of obstruction: branch, central and hemiretinal. The most common cause of vision loss in RVO is macular edema; other causes of vision loss include macular ischemia, intraretinal hemorrhage, epiretinal membrane, retinal pigment epithelial irregularity, and neovascularization with secondary vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment, and/or neovascular glaucoma. Age, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other systemic diseases are risk factors for RVO. Treatment options for RVO can be categorized as pharmacotherapy (e.g., anti-vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] agents, corticosteroids), thermal laser treatment, surgical treatment, and combination therapy. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, complications, differential diagnosis, and various treatment modalities for RVO.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAlbert and Jakobiec's Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology
Subtitle of host publicationFourth Edition
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages43
ISBN (Electronic)9783030426347
ISBN (Print)9783030426330
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine

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