Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer immense potential for scientific breakthroughs and technological innovations. While early demonstrations of 2D material-based electronics, optoelectronics, flextronics, straintronics, twistronics, and biomimetic devices exploited micromechanically-exfoliated single crystal flakes, recent years have witnessed steady progress in large-area growth techniques such as physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and metal-organic CVD (MOCVD). However, use of high growth temperatures, chemically-active growth precursors and promoters, and the need for epitaxy often limit direct growth of 2D materials on the substrates of interest for commercial applications. This has led to the development of a large number of methods for the layer transfer of 2D materials from the growth substrate to the target application substrate with varying degrees of cleanliness, uniformity, and transfer-related damage. This review aims to catalog and discuss these layer transfer methods. In particular, the processes, advantages, and drawbacks of various transfer methods are discussed, as is their applicability to different technological platforms of interest for 2D material implementation.
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