Review: Friction stir welding tools

R. Rai, A. De, H. K.D.H. Bhadeshia, T. DebRoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

650 Scopus citations


Friction stir welding (FSW) is a widely used solid state joining process for soft materials such as aluminium alloys because it avoids many of the common problems of fusion welding. Commercial feasibility of the FSW process for harder alloys such as steels and titanium alloys awaits the development of cost effective and durable tools which lead to structurally sound welds consistently. Material selection and design profoundly affect the performance of tools, weld quality and cost. Here we review and critically examine several important aspects of FSW tools such as tool material selection, geometry and load bearing ability, mechanisms of tool degradation and process economics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)325-342
Number of pages18
JournalScience and Technology of Welding and Joining
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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