Risk and Protective Factors for Frequent Electronic Device Use of Online Technologies

Paul L. Morgan, Yangyang Wang, Adrienne D. Woods

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


A sample of 10,460 U.S. elementary schoolchildren was analyzed to identify early predictors of frequent use of online technologies (i.e., messaging, online gaming, and social networking). Children (Mage = 67.44 months) at greater risk displayed more externalizing problem behaviors in kindergarten (messaging OR = 1.11; online gaming OR = 1.21; social networking OR = 1.12) or were Black (messaging OR = 1.65; online gaming OR = 1.64; social networking OR = 1.68). Children from higher-income families were at lower risk (online gaming OR = 0.89; social networking OR = 0.89). Boys were more frequent users of online gaming (OR = 3.35) but less frequent users of messaging (OR = 0.62) and social networking (OR = 0.80). Protective factors included specific parenting behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)704-714
Number of pages11
JournalChild development
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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