Role of Indocyanine Green with FLOW 800 in Removal of Hidden Arteriovenous Malformations

Chloe C. Grzyb, Ephraim W. Church

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) with FLOW 800 (Carl Zeiss AG) has been used as a visualization tool to guide arteriovenous malformation (AVM) surgery since 2011. We performed a systematic review and evaluated the quality of evidence available on this topic. In addition, we present a series of our own cases demonstrating the unique use of ICG-VA in the localization and removal of deeper seated AVMs. Methods: Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines for systematic reviews, we identified studies related to ICG-VA with FLOW 800 in AVM surgeries using search terms. The studies were screened and reviewed, and the quality of evidence was analyzed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) criteria. We performed a retrospective review of our own cases of AVM removal with ICG-VA and FLOW 800. Results: Our search revealed 27 relevant studies, 17 of which met our inclusion criteria. The quality of the body of evidence was determined to be “very low” using the GRADE criteria. We used ICG-VA with FLOW 800 analysis for 14 cases of microsurgical AVM removal. This technique provided unique insights into the localization of deep seated AVMs in 8 cases (57%). No residual AVM was found when assessed by the 6-month follow-up angiogram. Conclusions: We present cases highlighting the usefulness of this technique for the localization of certain AVMs. We believe the use of ICG-VA can guide the removal of deeper seated AVMs, because it can reveal surface feeders and draining veins that can be followed to a hidden nidus. Larger, registry-based studies are needed to confirm these findings and improve the overall quality of evidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e203-e213
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Aug 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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