We previously showed that the calcium-binding protein S100A4 is overexpressed during the progression of prostate cancer (CaP) in humans and in the TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) mouse model. We tested a hypothesis that the S100A4 gene plays a role in the invasiveness of human CaP and may be associated with its metastatic spread. We observed that siRNA-mediated suppression of the S100A4 gene significantly reduced the proliferative and invasive capability of the highly invasive CaP cells PC-3. We evaluated the mechanism through which the S100A4 gene controls invasiveness of cells by using a macroarray containing 96 well characterized metastatic genes. We found that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and its tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1) were highly responsive to S100A4 gene suppression. Furthermore, S100A4 suppression significantly reduced the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. By employing an MMP-9-promoter reporter, we observed a significant reduction in the transcriptional activation of the MMP-9 gene in S100A4-siRNA-transfected cells. Cells overexpressing the S100A4 gene (when transfected with pcDNA3.1-S100A4 plasmid) also significantly expressed MMP-9 and TIMP-1 genes with increased proteolytic activity of MMP-9 concomitant to increased transcriptional activation of the MMP-9 gene. S100A4-siRNA-transfected cells exhibited a reduced rate of tumor growth under in vivo conditions. Our data demonstrate that the S100A4 gene controls the invasive potential of human CaP cells through regulation of MMP-9 and that this association may contribute to metastasis of CaP cells. We suggest that S100A4 could be used as a biomarker for CaP progression and a novel therapeutic or chemopreventive target for human CaP treatment.
|Number of pages
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - Oct 3 2006
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