Safety Assessment of Citrus Flower- and Leaf-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics

Christina L. Burnett, Wilma F. Bergfeld, Donald V. Belsito, Ronald A. Hill, Curtis D. Klaassen, Daniel C. Liebler, James G. Marks, Ronald C. Shank, Thomas J. Slaga, Paul W. Snyder, Lillian J. Gill, Bart Heldreth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 33 Citrus flower- and leaf-derived ingredients, which are most frequently reported to function in cosmetics as fragrances and/or skin-conditioning agents. The Panel reviewed the available data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing similar constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these constituents and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers. With Citrus flower- and leaf-derived ingredients, the Panel was concerned about the presence of the hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool in cosmetics. Industry should use good manufacturing practices to limit impurities that could be present in botanical ingredients. The Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be non-irritating and non-sensitizing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53S-76S
JournalInternational journal of toxicology
Issue number3_suppl
StatePublished - Dec 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology


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