NMR spectroscopy has become one of the preferred analytical techniques for metabolomics studies due to its inherent nondestructive nature, ability to identify and quantify metabolites simultaneously in a complex mixture, minimal sample preparation requirement, and high degree of experimental reproducibility. NMR-based metabolomics studies involve the measurement and multivariate statistical analysis of metabolites present in biological samples such as biofluids, stool/feces, intestinal content, tissue, and cell extracts by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy—the goal then is to identify and quantify metabolites and evaluate changes of metabolite concentrations in response to some perturbation. Here we describe methodologies for NMR sample preparation of biofluids (serum, saliva, and urine) and stool/feces, intestinal content, and tissues for NMR experiments including extraction of polar metabolites and application of NMR in metabolomics studies. One dimensional (1D) 1H NMR experiments with different variations such as pre-saturation, relaxation-edited, and diffusion-edited are routinely acquired for profiling and metabolite identification and quantification. 2D homonuclear 1H-1H TOCSY and COSY, 2D J-resolved, and heteronuclear 1H-13C HSQC and HMBC are also performed to assist with metabolite identification and quantification. The NMR data are then subjected to targeted and/or untargeted multivariate statistical analysis for biomarker discovery, clinical diagnosis, toxicological studies, molecular phenotyping, and functional genomics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages13
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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