Scalable CMOS back-end-of-line-compatible AlScN/two-dimensional channel ferroelectric field-effect transistors

Kwan Ho Kim, Seyong Oh, Merrilyn Mercy Adzo Fiagbenu, Jeffrey Zheng, Pariasadat Musavigharavi, Pawan Kumar, Nicholas Trainor, Areej Aljarb, Yi Wan, Hyong Min Kim, Keshava Katti, Seunguk Song, Gwangwoo Kim, Zichen Tang, Jui Han Fu, Mariam Hakami, Vincent Tung, Joan M. Redwing, Eric A. Stach, Roy H. OlssonDeep Jariwala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Three-dimensional monolithic integration of memory devices with logic transistors is a frontier challenge in computer hardware. This integration is essential for augmenting computational power concurrent with enhanced energy efficiency in big data applications such as artificial intelligence. Despite decades of efforts, there remains an urgent need for reliable, compact, fast, energy-efficient and scalable memory devices. Ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FE-FETs) are a promising candidate, but requisite scalability and performance in a back-end-of-line process have proven challenging. Here we present back-end-of-line-compatible FE-FETs using two-dimensional MoS2 channels and AlScN ferroelectric materials, all grown via wafer-scalable processes. A large array of FE-FETs with memory windows larger than 7.8 V, ON/OFF ratios greater than 107 and ON-current density greater than 250 μA um–1, all at ~80 nm channel length are demonstrated. The FE-FETs show stable retention up to 10 years by extension, and endurance greater than 104 cycles in addition to 4-bit pulse-programmable memory features, thereby opening a path towards the three-dimensional heterointegration of a two-dimensional semiconductor memory with silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor logic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1044-1050
Number of pages7
JournalNature nanotechnology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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