Scanning frequency mixing microscopy of high-frequency transport behavior at electroactive interfaces

Brian J. Rodriguez, Stephen Jesse, Vincent Meunier, Sergei V. Kalinin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


An approach for high-frequency transport imaging, referred to as scanning frequency mixing microscopy (SFMM), is developed. Application of two high-frequency bias signals across an electroactive interface results in a low-frequency component due to interface nonlinearity. The frequency of a mixed signal is chosen within the bandwidth of the optical detector and can be tuned to the cantilever resonances. The SFMM signal is comprised of an intrinsic device contribution and a capacitive mixing contribution, and an approach to distinguish the two is suggested. This technique is illustrated on a model metal-semiconductor interface. The imaging mechanism and surface-tip contrast transfer are discussed. SFMM allows scanning probe microscopy based transport measurements to be extended to higher, ultimately gigahertz, frequency regimes, providing information on voltage derivatives of interface resistance and capacitance, from which device characteristics such as Schottky barrier height, etc., can be estimated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number143128
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number14
StatePublished - Apr 3 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Scanning frequency mixing microscopy of high-frequency transport behavior at electroactive interfaces'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this