Our previous study showed that one of the schweinfurthin compounds, 5’-methoxyschweinfurthin G (MeSG), not only enhances the anti-tumor effect of anti-PD1 antibody in the B16F10 murine melanoma model, but also provokes durable, protective anti-tumor immunity. Here we further investigated the mechanisms by which MeSG treatment induces immunogenic cell death (ICD). MeSG induced significant cell surface calreticulin (CRT) exposure in a time and concentration dependent manner as well as increased phagocytosis of tumor cells by dendritic cells in vitro. Interestingly, this CRT exposure differs from the canonical pathway in several aspects. MeSG does not cause ER stress and does not require PERK to induce CRT exposure. Caspase inhibitors partially rescue cells from MeSG-induced apoptosis, but fail to reduce CRT exposure. MeSG does not cause ERp57 exposure and the absence of ERp57 expression does not reduce CRT exposure. Finally, an intact ER to Golgi transport system is required for this phenomenon. These results lend support to the development of the schweinfurthin family as drugs to enhance clinical response to immunotherapy and highlight the need for additional research on the mechanisms of ICD induction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2104551
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Oncology


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