Secondary Bacterial Infections in Mucormycosis-COVID-19 Cases: Experience during the Second COVID-19 Wave in India

Neha Sharad, Smriti Srivastava, Parul Singh, Mamta Puraswani, Sharad Srivastav, Rajesh Malhotra, Anjan Trikha, Purva Mathur

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Abstract

In the second wave of COVID-19 in India, there was a new challenge in the form of mucormycosis. Coinfection with mucormycosis was perilous as both conditions required a prolonged hospital stay, thus serving as an ideal platform for secondary infections. Using a retrospective observational study, we studied secondary infections and their impact on the outcome in COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis. The outcome in these patients was evaluated and compared with COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis but without any secondary infection. SPSS V-20 was used for data analysis. Fifty-five patients tested positive for mucormycosis (55/140; 39.28). Twelve out of these 55 (21.8%) developed secondary infections during their hospital stay. Bloodstream infection was the most common (42.86%) secondary infection. The Gram-negative (GN) organisms were more common (11/16; 68.75%) compared with the Gram-positives (GP) (5/16; 31.25%). But the most common isolate was Enterococcus faecium (5/16; 31.25%). A high percentage of microorganisms isolated were multidrug-resistant (15/16; 93.75%). Two out of five (40%) isolates of Enterococcus faecium were vancomycin-resistant (VRE). High resistance to carbapenems was noted in the GN isolates (9/11; 81.81%). The comparison of length of stay in both subgroups was statistically significant (P value,0.001). When compared, the length of stay in people with adverse outcomes was also statistically significant (P value,0.001). Procalcitonin (PCT) had a positive predictive value for the development of secondary bacterial infections (P value,0.001). Antimicrobial stewardship and strict infection control practices are the need of the hour.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMicrobiology Spectrum
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Ecology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • Genetics
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Cell Biology
  • Infectious Diseases

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