Segmentation of culturally diverse visitors' values in forest recreation management

Chieh Lu Li, Harry C. Zinn, Garry E. Chick, James D. Absher, Alan R. Graefe, Yi Chung Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to examine the potential utility of HOFSTEDE'S measure of cultural values (1980) for group segmentation in an ethnically diverse population in a forest recreation context, and to validate the values segmentation, if any, via socio-demographic and service quality related variables. In 2002, the visitors to the Angeles National Forest (ANF) near metropolitan Los Angeles were surveyed. Using a systematic convenience sampling at sites known to be heavily used by visitors with diverse ethnic backgrounds, we obtained a sample of 444 Anglos, 312 Hispanics, and 319 Asians (overall N = 1174). We first attempted to confirm Hofstede's four cultural dimensions of values in the context of forest recreation. Given the poor fit of the data to the original four-dimensional cultural values model, we used exploratory factor analysis to find interpretable dimensions of cultural values in the data. We found three dimensions which we labeled Hierarchical Beliefs, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Femininity. We then used K-means cluster analysis to identify homogeneous groups of respondents based on similar responses to the cultural values dimensions and their age. The results showed that respondents can be segmented into three homogeneous groups, which we labelled Modernist, Mixed, and Postmodernist, based on Inglehart's Modernization and Postmodernization values. Socio-demographics, service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions variables were used to validate and test for variations across segments. The findings provided evidence in support of the cross-cultural values scale's ability to identify distinct market segments. The findings and management implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-29
Number of pages11
JournalForest Snow and Landscape Research
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Oct 19 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Forestry


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