Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), a migrating bio-indicator

Huipeng Pan, Xiaowei Yang, Keith Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Blair D. Siegfried, Xuguo Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique to quantify gene expression. To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate results, normalization relative to stably expressed reference genes is crucial. The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), is one of the most recognized insect species for its spectacular annual migration across North America. Besides its great voyages, D. plexippus has drawn attention to its role as a bio-indicator, ranging from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to natural ecosystems. In this study, nine reference genes from D. plexippus genome were selected as the candidate reference genes. The expression profiles of these candidates under various biotic and abiotic conditions were evaluated using the four readily available computational programs, BestKeeper, Normfinder, geNorm, and ΔCt method, respectively. Moreover, RefFinder, a web-based computational platform integrating the four above mentioned algorisms, provided a comprehensive ranking of the stability of these reference genes. As a result, a suite of reference genes were recommended for each experimental condition. Specifically, elongation factor 1α (EF1A) and ribosomal protein 49 (RP49) were the most stable reference genes, respectively, under biotic (development, tissue, and sex) and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature, and dietary RNAi) conditions. With the recent release of a 273-million base pair draft genome, results from this study allow us to establish a standardized RT-qPCR analysis and lay a foundation for the subsequent genomic and functional genomic research in D. plexippus, a major bio-indicator and an emerging model for migratory animals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0129482
JournalPloS one
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), a migrating bio-indicator'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this