Self-efficacy scale for pap smear screening participation in sheltered women

Jette R. Hogenmiller, Jan R. Atwood, Ada M. Lindsey, David R. Johnson, Melody Hertzog, Joseph C. Scott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Background: Sheltered, homeless women disproportionately experience cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Low rates of Pap smear screening contribute to late diagnosis with accompanying increased morbidity and mortality. Self-efficacy (SE) has been demonstrated to be predictive of several health behaviors, but limited evidence about SE for Pap smear screening exists. Objectives: To develop, test, and refine the conceptually based Self-Efficacy Scale for Pap Smear Screening Participation (SES-PSSP). Methods: This correlational, descriptive study included a purposive sampling of sheltered women (N ≤ 161). Results: The 20-item SES-PSSP demonstrated acceptable initial validity and reliability. Reliability estimates of stability (ĝ‰¥84%) and internal consistency (± ≤ .95) exceeded criteria. Content validity and construct validity were supported (e.g., common factor analysis and predictive model testing that included SE, decisional balance, knowledge regarding Pap smear screening, demographics, health-related behaviors, health status, and personal beliefs about risks for cervical cancer and dysplasia). Self-efficacy, decisional balance, illicit drug usage, and age predicted 28% of the variance in stages of change (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance) for Pap smear screening participation. Discussion: The SES-PSSP provides a new scale for measuring SE pertinent to Pap smear screening participation in a vulnerable, ethnically diverse sample of sheltered, inner-city women. Validity testing demonstrated that the SE concept was predictive of Pap smear screening behavior, suggesting that SE-based interventions tailored to the SES-PSSP subscale or total scores could increase screening. A 10-minute completion time supports feasibility for use in the clinic setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-377
Number of pages9
JournalNursing Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine


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