Background and Objectives: Sevoflurane is a commonly used inhalational anaesthetic in clinics. Prolonged exposure to sevoflurane can induce significant changes in lipid metabolism and neuronal damage in the developing brain. However, the effect of exposure of pregnant rats to clinical doses of sevoflurane remains unclear. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight pregnant rats were randomly and equally divided into sevoflurane exposure (S) group, control (C) and a blank group at gestational day (G) 18; Rats in S group received 2% sevoflurane with 98% oxygen for 6 h in an anesthetizing chamber, while C group received 100% oxygen at an identical flow rate for 6 h in an identical chamber. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), ultra performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC/TOF-MS) and MetaboAnalyst were used to analysis acquire metabolomics profiles, and immunohistochemical changes of neuronalapoptosis in hippocampus and cortex of neonatal rats were also analyzed. Results: This study aimed to explore lipidomics and transcriptomics changes related to 2% sevoflurane exposure for 6 h in the developing brains of newborn offspring rats. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/TOF–MS) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses were used to acquire metabolomics and transcriptomics profiles. We used RNA-seq to analyse the expression of the coding and non-coding transcripts in neural cells of the cerebral cortex. No significant differences in arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), or arterial blood gas were found between the groups. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of retention times was <1.53%, and the RSDs of peak areas ranged from 2.13% to 8.51%. Base peak chromatogram (BPC) profiles showed no differences between the groups. We evaluated the partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model. In negative ion mode, R2X was over 70%, R2Y was over 93%, and Q2 (cum) was over 80%. Cell apoptosis was not remarkably enhanced by TUNEL and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining in the sevoflurane-exposed group compared to the control group (p > 0.05). Glycerophospholipid (GP) and sphingolipid metabolism disturbances might adversely influence neurodevelopment in offspring. The expression of mRNAs (Vcan gene, related to neuronal development, function and repair) of the sevoflurane group was significantly increased in the differential genes by qRT-PCR verification. Conclusions: GP and sphingolipid metabolism homeostasis may be potential therapeutic approaches against inhalational anaesthetic-induced neurodegenerative disorders. Meanwhile, sevoflurane-induced Vcan changes indicated some lipidomic and transcriptomic changes, even if neural cell apoptosis was not significantly changed in the usual clinical dose of sevoflurane exposure.
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