The repeat low-dose virus challenge model is commonly used in nonhuman primate studies of HIV transmission and biomedical preventions. For some viruses or challenge routes, it is uncertain whether the repeated exposure design might induce virus-directed innate or adaptive immunity that could affect infection or viremic outcomes. Retrospective cohorts of male Indian rhesus (n=40) and female pigtail (n=46) macaques enrolled in repeat low-dose rectal or vaginal SHIVSF162p3 challenge studies, respectively, were studied to compare the relationship between the number of previous exposures and peak plasma SHIV RNA levels or viral load area under the curve (AUC), surrogate markers of viral control. Repeated mucosal exposures of 10 or 50 TCID50 of virus for rectal and vaginal exposures, respectively, were performed. Virus levels were measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR. The cumulative number of SHIVSF162p3 exposures did not correlate with observed peak virus levels or with AUC in rectally challenged rhesus macaques [peak: rho (ρ)=0.04, p=0.8; AUC: ρ=0.33, p=0.06] or vaginally challenged pigtail macaques (peak: ρ=-0.09, p=0.7; AUC: ρ=0.11, p=0.6). Infections in these models occur independently of exposure history and provide assurance that neither inoculation route nor number of exposures required for infection correlates with postinfection viremia. These data also indicate that both the vaginal and rectal repeated low-dose virus exposure models using SHIVSF162p3 provide a reliable system for nonhuman primate studies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Infectious Diseases