Side-to-side reverse superficial temporal artery to M4 middle cerebral artery bypass for common carotid artery occlusion with bonnet collaterals: illustrative case

Lekhaj C. Daggubati, Varun Padmanaban, Ephraim W. Church

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BACKGROUND The bonnet bypass was initially described for common carotid artery occlusion. Considered a second-generation bypass, it augments intracranial perfusion with contralateral external carotid artery flow through an interposition graft running over the scalp vertex. However, the traditional first-generation low-flow superficial temporal artery (STA)-M4 middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass may be enhanced by performing a side-to-side (S-S) bypass with an intraluminal suture technique (fourth-generation bypass) to increase perfusion through antegrade and retrograde flow. OBSERVATIONS The authors present a reimagined S-S STA-M4 bypass in the case of a patient with symptomatic common carotid occlusion, in which the ipsilateral STA filled in a reverse fashion from the contralateral external carotid branches over the scalp vertex (bonnet collaterals). By performing an S-S anastomosis, the authors were able to improve cerebral perfusion and avoid the multiple anastomosis sites of the bonnet bypass. LESSONS The patient had a good recovery with resolution of his preoperative symptoms. Follow-up angiography showed a patent bypass supplying the MCA territory through retrograde flow in the frontal and parietal limbs of the STA, converging at the anastomosis site. In this report, the authors present a new fourth-generation bypass dubbed the “S-S reverse STA-M4 MCA bypass.”.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberCASE2177
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery: Case Lessons
Issue number19
StatePublished - May 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery

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