Cellular functions are regulated by signal transduction pathway networks consisting of protein-modifying enzymes that control the activity of many downstream proteins. Protein kinases and phosphatases regulate gene expression by reversible phosphorylation of transcriptional factors, which are their direct substrates. Casein kinase II (CK2) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates a large number of proteins that have critical roles in cellular proliferation, metabolism and survival. Altered function of CK2 has been associated with malignant transformation, immunological disorders and other types of diseases. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase, which regulates the phosphorylation status of many proteins that are essential for cellular functions. IKAROS is a DNA-binding protein, which functions as a regulator of gene transcription in hematopoietic cells. CK2 directly phosphorylates IKAROS at multiple phosphosites which determines IKAROS activity as a regulator of gene expression. PP1 binds to IKAROS via the PP1-consensus recognition site and dephosphorylates serine/threonine residues that are phosphorylated by CK2. Thus, the interplay between CK2 and PP1 signaling pathways have opposing effects on the phosphorylation status of their mutual substrate – IKAROS. This review summarizes the effects of CK2 and PP1 on IKAROS role in regulation of gene expression and its function as a tumor suppressor in leukemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100942
JournalAdvances in Biological Regulation
StatePublished - May 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research


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