Silicon Negative Electrodes—What Can Be Achieved for Commercial Cell Energy Densities

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Historically, lithium cobalt oxide and graphite have been the positive and negative electrode active materials of choice for commercial lithium-ion cells. It has only been over the past ~15 years in which alternate positive electrode materials have been used. As new positive and negative active materials, such as NMC811 and silicon-based electrodes, are being developed, it is crucial to evaluate the potential of these materials at a stack or cell level to fully understand the possible increases in energy density which can be achieved. Comparisons were made between electrode stack volumetric energy densities for designs containing either LCO or NMC811 positive electrode and silicon-graphite negative electrodes, where the weight percentages of silicon were evaluated between zero and ninety percent. Positive electrode areal loadings were evaluated between 2.00 and 5.00 mAh cm−2. NMC811 at 200 mAh g−1 has the ability to increase stack energy density between 11% and 20% over LCO depending on percentage silicon and areal loading. At a stack level, the percentage of silicon added results in large increases in energy density but delivers a diminishing return, with the greatest increase observed as the percentage of silicon is increased from zero percent to approximately 25–30%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number576
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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