Assimilating high-resolution radar reflectivity and radial velocity into convection-permitting numerical weather prediction models has proven to be an important tool for improving forecast skill of convection. The use of satellite data for the application is much less well understood, only recently receiving significant attention. Since both radar and satellite data provide independent information, combing these two sources of data in a robust manner potentially represents the future of high-resolution data assimilation. This research combines Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 13 (GOES-13) cloud water path (CWP) retrievals with Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) reflectivity and radial velocity to examine the impacts of assimilating each for a severe weather event occurring in Oklahoma on 24 May 2011. Data are assimilated into a 3-km model using an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter approach with 36 members over a 2-h assimilation window between 1800 and 2000 UTC. Forecasts are then generated for 90 min at 5-min intervals starting at 1930 and 2000 UTC. Results show that both satellite and radar data are able to initiate convection, but that assimilating both spins up a storm much faster. Assimilating CWP also performs well at suppressing spurious precipitation and cloud cover in the model as well as capturing the anvil characteristics of developed storms. Radar data are most effective at resolving the 3D characteristics of the core convection. Assimilating both satellite and radar data generally resulted in the best model analysis and most skillful forecast for this event.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science