Single step densification of high permittivity BaTiO3 ceramics at 300 ºC

Kosuke Tsuji, Arnaud Ndayishimiye, Sarah Lowum, Richard Floyd, Ke Wang, Maxwell Wetherington, Jon Paul Maria, Clive A. Randall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


Dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics are prepared in a single step by the Cold Sintering Process at 300 °C, under a uniaxial pressure of 520 MPa for 12 h using a molten hydroxide flux. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a dense microstructure with sharp grain boundaries. The average grain sizes are 75−150 nm depending on the flux amount. The dielectric permittivity is 700–1800 at room temperature at 106 Hz, with a dielectric loss, tan δ ∼ 0.04. The difference in permittivity and phase transition behavior are explained in terms of the intrinsic size effect of the BaTiO3. The nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics still shows a macroscopic ferroelectric switching via a hysteresis loop. This work demonstrates that cold-sintering process could enable the densification of ferroelectric oxides in a single step. Futhermore, comparable dielectric properties to reported values for nanocrystalline grains are obtained, but at this time, with the lowest processing temperatures ever used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1280-1284
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the European Ceramic Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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