Six multidimensional sleep health facets in older adults identified with factor analysis of actigraphy: Results from the Einstein Aging Study

Linying Ji, Meredith L. Wallace, Lindsay Master, Margeaux M. Schade, Yuqi Shen, Carol A. Derby, Orfeu M. Buxton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives: The concept of multi-dimensional sleep health, originally based on self-report, was recently extended to actigraphy in older adults, yielding five components, but without a hypothesized rhythmicity factor. The current study extends prior work using a sample of older adults with a longer period of actigraphy follow-up, which may facilitate observation of the rhythmicity factor. Methods: Wrist actigraphy measures of participants (N = 289, Mage = 77.2 years, 67% females; 47% White, 40% Black, 13% Hispanic/Others) over 2 weeks were used in exploratory factor analysis to determine factor structures, followed by confirmatory factor analysis on a different subsample. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by associations with global cognitive performance (Montreal Cognitive Assessment). Results: Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: Regularity: standard deviations of four sleep measures: midpoint, sleep onset time, night total sleep time (TST), and 24-hour TST; Alertness/Sleepiness (daytime): amplitude, napping (mins and #/day); Timing: sleep onset, midpoint, wake-time (of nighttime sleep); up-mesor, acrophase, down-mesor; Efficiency: sleep maintenance efficiency, wake after sleep onset; Duration: night rest interval(s), night TST, 24-hour rest interval(s), 24-hour TST; Rhythmicity (pattern across days): mesor, alpha, and minimum. Greater sleep efficiency was associated with better Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance (β [95% confidence interval] = 0.63 [0.19, 1.08]). Conclusions: Actigraphic records over 2 weeks revealed that Rhythmicity may be an independent factor in sleep health. Facets of sleep health can facilitate dimension reduction, be considered predictors of health outcomes, and be potential targets for sleep interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)758-766
Number of pages9
JournalSleep health
Issue number5
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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