Small Sample Characteristics of Generalized Estimating Equations

J. C. Gunsolley, C. Getchell, V. M. Chinchilli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to investigate the Type I error rate of hypothesis testing based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) for data characteristic of periodontal clinical trials. The data in these studies consist of a large number of binary responses from each subject and a small number of subjects (Haffajee et al. (1983), Goodson (1986), Jenkins et al. (1988)) Computer simulations were employed to investigate GEE based both on an empirical estimate of the variance-covariance matrix and a model-based estimate. Results from this investigation indicate that hypothesis testing based on GEE resulted in inappropriate Type I error rates when small samples are employed. Only an increase in the number of subjects to the point where it matched the number of observations per subject resulted in appropriate Type I error rates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)869-878
Number of pages10
JournalCommunications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1995

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Modeling and Simulation


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