Social Capital, Urbanization Level, and COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake in the United States: A National Level Analysis

Shan Qiao, Zhenlong Li, Jiajia Zhang, Xiaowen Sun, Camryn Garrett, Xiaoming Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Vaccination remains the most promising mitigation strategy for the COVID-19 pandemic. However, existing literature shows significant disparities in vaccination uptake in the United States. Using publicly available national-level data, we aimed to explore if county-level social capital can further explain disparities in vaccination uptake rates when adjusting for demographic and social determinants of health (SDOH) variables, and if association between social capital and vaccination uptake may vary by urbanization level. Bivariate analyses and a hierarchical multivariable quasi-binomial regression analysis were conducted, where the regression analysis was stratified by urban– rural status. The current study suggests that social capital contributes significantly to the disparities of vaccination uptake in the US. The results of the stratification analysis show common predictors of vaccine uptake but also suggest various patterns based on urbanization level regarding the associations of COVID-19 vaccination uptake with SDOH and social capital factors. The study provides a new perspective to address disparities in vaccination uptake through fostering social capital within communities; which may inform tailored public health intervention efforts to enhance social capital and promote vaccination uptake.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number625
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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