A sodium chloride (NaCl) catalyst (0.1 w/w %) lowers the oxidation temperature of graphitized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: MWCNT-20 (diameter: 20-70 nm) and MWCNT-80 (diameter: 80-150 nm). The analysis of the reaction kinetics indicates that the oxidation of MWCNT-20 and MWCNT-80 mixed with no NaCl exhibits single reaction processes with activation energies of E a= 159 and 152 kJ mol-1, respectively. The oxidation reaction in the presence of NaCl is shown to consist of two different reaction processes, that is, a first reaction and a second reaction process. The first reaction process is dominant at a low temperature of around 600°C, while the second reaction process becomes more dominant than the first one in a higher temperature region. The activation energies of the first reaction processes (MWCNT-20: Ea1 = 35.7 kJ mol-1; MWCNT-80: Ea1 = 43.5 kJ mol-1) are much smaller than those of the second reaction processes (MWCNT-20: Ea2 = 170 kJ mol-1; MWCNT-80: E a2 = 171 kJ mol-1). The comparison of the kinetic parameters and the results of the spectroscopic and microscopic analyses imply that the lowering of the oxidation temperature in the presence of NaCl results from the introduction of disorder into the graphitized MWCNTs (during the first reaction process), thus increasing the facility of the oxidation reaction of the disorder-induced nanotubes (in the second reaction process). It is found that the larger nanopits and cracks on the outer graphitic layers are caused by the catalytic effect of NaCl. Therefore, the NaCl-mixed samples showed more rapid and stronger oxidation compared with that of the nonmixed samples at the same residual quantity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry