Solution-processed graphene films for electrochemical monitoring of extracellular nitric oxide released by breast cancer cells

Derrick Butler, Chinmay S. Sankhe, Pouya Soltan Khamsi, Esther W. Gomez, Aida Ebrahimi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in cardiovascular function, immune response, and intercellular signaling. However, due to its short lifetime, real-time detection of NO is challenging. Herein, an electrochemical sensor based on fibronectin-modified, solution-processed graphene ink for NO detection is developed using a facile fabrication method involving spin-coating and hot-plate annealing. The sensor is first electrochemically characterized with a NO donor, spermine NONOate, exhibiting a dynamic range of 10-1000 μM. The fibronectin-functionalized graphene supports the attachment and growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as confirmed by optical microscopy. Extracellular NO production is stimulated using the amino acid L-arginine. NO production results in morphological changes to the adhered cells, which are reversible upon the addition of the NO synthase antagonist Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. The production of NO is also confirmed using real-time amperometric measurements with the fibronectin-functionalized graphene sensors. While this work focuses on NO detection, this potentially scalable platform could be extended to other cell types with envisioned applications including the high-throughput evaluation of therapeutics and biocompatible coatings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number015021
Journal2D Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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