SPIDERS: Overview of the X-ray galaxy cluster follow-up and the final spectroscopic data release

N. Clerc, C. C. Kirkpatrick, A. Finoguenov, R. Capasso, J. Comparat, S. Damsted, K. Furnell, A. E. Kukkola, J. Ider Chitham, A. Merloni, M. Salvato, A. Gueguen, T. Dwelly, C. Collins, A. Saro, G. Erfanianfar, D. P. Schneider, J. Brownstein, G. A. Mamon, N. PadillaE. Jullo, D. Bizyaev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


SPIDERS (The SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a large spectroscopic programme for X-ray selected galaxy clusters as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS-IV). We describe the final data set in the context of SDSS Data Release 16 (DR16): The survey overall characteristics, final targeting strategies, achieved completeness, and spectral quality, with special emphasis on its use as a galaxy cluster sample for cosmology applications. SPIDERS now consists of about 27 000 new optical spectra of galaxies selected within 4000 photometric red sequences, each associated with an X-ray source. The excellent spectrograph efficiency and a robust analysis pipeline yield a spectroscopic redshift measurement success rate exceeding 98 per cent, with a median velocity accuracy of 20 km s-1 (at z = 0.2). Using the catalogue of 2740 X-ray galaxy clusters confirmed with DR16 spectroscopy, we reveal the 3D map of the galaxy cluster distribution in the observable Universe up to z ∼0.6. We highlight the homogeneity of the member galaxy spectra among distinct regions of the galaxy cluster phase space. Aided by accurate spectroscopic redshifts and by a model of the sample selection effects, we compute the galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity function and we present its lack of evolution up to z = 0.6. Finally we discuss the prospects of forthcoming large multiplexed spectroscopic programmes dedicated to follow up the next generation of all-sky X-ray source catalogues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3976-3992
Number of pages17
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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