Stabilizing far-from-equilibrium (Mo,Ti)S2thin films by metal sulfurization at reduced temperature

Yifei Li, Kate Reidy, Aubrey Penn, Seng Huat Lee, Baoming Wang, Kevin Ye, Zhiqiang Mao, Frances M. Ross, R. Jaramillo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We report the synthesis of large-area, high-Ti-content, Mo1-xTixS2 alloy thin films in the 2H phase at temperature as low as 500 °C using a scalable two-step method of metal film deposition, followed by sulfurization in H2S. Film processing at higher temperature accelerates Ti segregation, film coarsening, and the formation of TiS2 in the 1T phase. Crystal growth at higher temperature results in the formation of multiple binary sulfide phases, in agreement with the equilibrium phase diagram. Making highly metastable, smooth, and uniform single-phase alloy films, therefore, hinges on developing low-temperature processing. Our results are relevant to the development of technologies based on designer transition metal dichalcogenide alloys, including in photonic integrated circuits and gas sensing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number023405
JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this