Objective: Present study investigates the effect of Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lamk.) M. Roem fruit fraction (CDR) on endotoxemia and explores the underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods: The effect of CDR (1–100 µg/ml) was assessed on cytokines, MAPKs, ROS, and metabolic reprogramming in LPS-induced cells (J774.2 and THP-1) by the conventional methodology of ELISA, PCR, and Western blotting. The effect of CDR (1–50 mg/kg, p.o.) was also evaluated in the mice model of endotoxemia and sepsis. Results: CDR prevents LPS-induced cytokine production from murine and human whole blood and cell lines. CDR suppressed total cellular and mitochondrial superoxide generation and preserved mitochondrial function in LPS-stimulated phagocytes. Additionally, CDR abrogated LPS-induced MAPK’s phosphorylation and IκBα degradation in J774.2 cells. Moreover, CDR suppressed LPS-induced glycolytic flux as indicated from PKM2, HK-2, PDK-2, and HIF-1α expression in J774.2 cells. In vivo, CDR pre-treatment inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines release, metabolic reprogramming from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in both LPS-induced endotoxemia and cecal slurry-induced sepsis mice model. Conclusion: Present study demonstrates the protective effect of CDR on LPS-induced inflammation and sepsis and identifies MAPK-NFκB and ROS-HIF1α-PKM2 as the putative target axis.
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