Stealthy SWAPs: Adversarial SWAP Injection in Multi-Tenant Quantum Computing

Suryansh Upadhyay, Swaroop Ghosh

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Quantum computing (QC) holds tremendous promise in revolutionizing problem-solving across various domains. It has been suggested in literature that 50+ qubits are sufficient to achieve quantum advantage (i.e., to surpass supercomputers in solving certain class of optimization problems). The hardware size of existing Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) computers have been ever increasing over the years. Therefore, Multi-tenant computing (MTC) has emerged as a potential solution for efficient hardware utilization, enabling shared resource access among multiple quantum programs. However, MTC can also bring new security concerns. This paper proposes one such threat for MTC in superconducting quantum hardware i.e., adversarial SWAP gate injection in victim's program during compilation for MTC. We present a representative scheduler designed for optimal resource allocation. To demonstrate the impact of this attack model, we conduct a detailed case study using a sample scheduler. Exhaustive experiments on circuits with varying depths and qubits offer valuable insights into the repercussions of these attacks. We report a max of ≈ 55% and a median increase of ≈ 25% in SWAP overhead. As a countermeasure, we also propose a sample machine learning model for detecting any abnormal user behavior and priority adjustment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - 37th International Conference on VLSI Design, VLSID 2024 - held concurrently with 23rd International Conference on Embedded Systems, ES 2024
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9798350384406
StatePublished - 2024
Event37th International Conference on VLSI Design, VLSID 2024 - Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Duration: Jan 6 2024Jan 10 2024

Publication series

NameProceedings of the IEEE International Conference on VLSI Design
ISSN (Print)1063-9667


Conference37th International Conference on VLSI Design, VLSID 2024
CityKolkata, West Bengal

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this