Structural-property relations in a reduced and internally biased oxide wafer (RAINBOW) actuator material

Catherine Elissalde, L. Eric Cross, Clive A. Randall

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37 Scopus citations


Reduced and internally biased oxide wafer (RAINBOW) actuators are fabricated by a controlled reduction of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based piezoelectric material. The reduction process results in a conductive layer composed of an interconnected metallic lead phase and refractory oxides (ZrTiO4, ZrO2, La2O3, etc.). The nature of the reduction is discovered to be the result of a complex volume change leading to a nanoscale interconnected metallic structure. The distribution of phases within the cermet vary within the thickness of the wafer. Within the piezoelectric ceramic phase, the reduction process modifies the grain-boundary structure to give two distinct types of fracture: transgranular and intergranular. The complexed microstructures of the RAINBOW actuator materials are discussed in relation to their dielectric and piezoelectric properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2041-2048
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1996

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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