Oxidative metabolism in the heart is tightly coupled to mechanical work. Because this coupling process is believed to involve Ca2+ the roles of mitochondrial Ca2+ in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation was studied in isolated rat heart mitochondria. The electrical component of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and the redox state of the pyridine nucleotides were determined during the oxidation of various substrates under different metabolic states. In the absence of added adenine nucleotides, the NADP+ redox couple was almost completely reduced, regardless of the specific substrate and the presence of Ca2+, whereas NAD+ couple redox state was highly dependent on the substrate type and the presence of Ca2+. Titration of respiration with ADP, in the presence of excess hexokinase and glucose, showed that both respiration and NAD(P)+ reduction were very sensitive to ADP. The maximal enzyme reaction rate of ADP-stimulated respiration Michaelis constants (K(m)) for ADP were dependent on the particular substrate employed. ΔΨ was much less sensitive to ADP. With either α-ketoglutarate or glutamate as substrate, Ca2+ significantly increased reduction of NAD(P)+. Ca2+ did not influence NAD(P)+ reduction with either acetylcarnitine or pyruvate as substrate. In the presence of ADP, ΔΨ was increased by Ca2+ at all metabolic states with glutamate plus malate, 0.5 mM α-ketoglutarate plus malate, or pyruvate plus malate as substrates. The data presented support the hypothesis that cardiac respiration is controlled by the availability of both Ca2+ and ADP to mitochondria. The data indicate that an increase in substrate supply to mitochondria can increase mitochondrial respiration at given level of ADP. This effect can be produced by Ca2+ with substrates such as glutamate, which utilize α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity for oxidation. Increases in respiration by Ca2+ may mitigate an increase in ADP during periods of increased cardiac work.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology|
|Issue number||4 39-4|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1996|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)