Sudoku sequences, Costas sequences, and random permutations in a multi-sub-FDA radar

Nicholas R. Munson, Ram M. Narayanan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Frequency diverse arrays (FDAs), which employ a small frequency increment across each array element, are of recent interest as a popular beam steering technique since they generate a range-angle dependent beampatterns. This paper explores the use of permutations of integers to specify multiples of a transmit frequency offset from carrier for the elements of a multi-sub-FDA, a new architecture in FDA research. The resulting patterns have a peak at a user-specified range and aspect angle, and are periodic in range. Range peak sidelobe ratio (PSLR) and integrated sidelobe level (ISL) analyses with respect to bandwidth reveal the utility of sequences obtained from solved Sudoku puzzles in providing far-field patterns for use in a beacon or for area surveillance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRadar Sensor Technology XXVII
EditorsAbigail S. Hedden, Gregory J. Mazzaro, Ann Marie Raynal
ISBN (Electronic)9781510661844
StatePublished - 2023
EventRadar Sensor Technology XXVII 2023 - Orlando, United States
Duration: May 1 2023May 3 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceRadar Sensor Technology XXVII 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this