18F-FDG PET/CT Prediction of Treatment Outcomes in Human Papillomavirus-Positive, Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients Receiving Deintensified Therapy: Results from NRG-HN002

Rathan M. Subramaniam, Lyudmila DeMora, Min Yao, Sue S. Yom, Maura Gillison, Jimmy J. Caudell, John Waldron, Ping Xia, Christine H. Chung, Minh Tam Truong, Michelle Echevarria, Jason W. Chan, Essica L. JGeiger, Loren Mell, Samantha Seaward, Wade L. Thorstad, Jonathan Jay Beitler, Khalil Sultanem, Diagjin Blakaj, Quynh Thu Le

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The purpose of this study was to determine the negative predictive value (NPV) of a 12- to 14-wk posttreatment PET/CT for 2-y progression-free survival (PFS) and locoregional control (LRC) in patients with p16-positive locoregionally advanced oropharyngeal cancer (LA-OPC). Study was a secondary endpoint in NRG-HN002, a noncomparative phase II trial in p16-positive LA-OPC, stage T1-T2, N1-N2b or T3, N0-N2b, and ≤10 pack-year smoking. Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to reduced-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with or without cisplatin. Methods: PET/CT scans were reviewed centrally. Tumor response evaluations for the primary site, right neck, and left neck were performed using a 5-point ordinal scale (Hopkins criteria). Overall scores were then assigned as negative, positive, or indeterminate. Patients with a negative score for all 3 evaluation sites were given an overall score of negative. The hypotheses were NPV for PFS and LRC at 2-y posttreatment ≤ 90% versus .90% (1-sided P value, 0.10). Results: A total of 316 patients were enrolled, of whom 306 were randomized and eligible. Of these, 131 (42.8%) patients consented to a posttherapy PET/CT, and 117 (89.3%) patients were eligible for PET/CT analysis. The median time from the end of treatment to PET/CT scan was 94 d (range, 52-139 d). Estimated 2-y PFS and LRC rates in the analysis subgroup were 91.3% (95% CI, 84.6, 95.8%) and 93.8% (95% CI, 87.6, 97.5%), respectively. Posttreatment scans were negative for residual tumor for 115 patients (98.3%) and positive for 2 patients (1.7%). NPV for 2-y PFS was 92.0% (90% lower confidence bound [LCB] 87.7%; P = 0.30) and for LRC was 94.5% (90% LCB 90.6%; P = 0.07). Conclusion: In the context of deintensification with reduced-dose radiation, the NPV of a 12- to 14-wk posttherapy PET/CT for 2-y LRC is estimated to be.90%, similar to that reported for patients receiving standard chemoradiation. However, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the NPV is .90% for PFS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)362-367
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Nuclear Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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