Surface binding sites in amylase have distinct roles in recognition of starch structure motifs and degradation

Darrell Cockburn, Morten M. Nielsen, Camilla Christiansen, Joakim M. Andersen, Julie B. Rannes, Andreas Blennow, Birte Svensson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Carbohydrate converting enzymes often possess extra substrate binding regions that enhance their activity. These can be found either on separate domains termed carbohydrate binding modules or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) situated on the catalytic domain. SBSs are common in starch degrading enzymes and critically important for their function. The affinity towards a variety of starch granules as well as soluble poly- and oligosaccharides of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) wild-type and mutants of two SBSs (SBS1 and SBS2) was investigated using Langmuir binding analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, affinity gel electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance to unravel functional roles of the SBSs. SBS1 was critical for binding to different starch types as Kd increased by 7-62-fold or was not measurable upon mutation. By contrast SBS2 was particularly important for binding to soluble polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with α-1,6 linkages, suggesting that branch points are key structural elements in recognition by SBS2. Mutation at both SBS1 and SBS2 eliminated binding to all starch granule types tested. Taken together, the findings indicate that the two SBSs act in concert to localize AMY1 to the starch granule surface and that SBS2 works synergistically with the active site in the degradation of amylopectin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)338-345
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Biology
  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry


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