High quality BaTiO3 powders that were synthesized with hydrothermal and solid state methods are characterized with respect to surface chemistry. Different characterization techniques are used to obtain a physical picture for the BaTiO3 powders with respect to different synthesis routes and thermal histories. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to understand the BaTiO3 powders after heat and humidity treatments. Formation of amorphous and crystalline BaCO3 in local heterogeneous regions depletes the surrounding surface of Ba ions to create larger areas that are Ti-rich. BaCO3 formation and adventitious carbon adsorption occur extremely quickly on the surface of crushed single-crystal BaTiO3 powder, but for manufactured powders, the degree of carbonate formation and the impact on surface stoichiometry varies with thermal history.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Engineering
- General Physics and Astronomy