Surface modification of BaTiO3 with catechol surfactant and effects on cold sintering

Takao Sada, Arnaud Ndayishimiye, Zhongming Fan, Yoshihiro Fujioka, Clive A. Randall

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8 Scopus citations


The sintering of functionalized particles is an approach often used to obtain high performance functional ceramics. When molecular surfactants are used to functionalize particles, conventional sintering cannot be applied due to extremely high processing temperatures. Here, BaTiO3 particles are grafted with different coverages using a catechol (CA) surfactant, and then these particles are densified under cold sintering with a (BaOH2)⋅8H2O transient flux. The adsorption of CA is equilibrated with various concentrations on BaTiO3 particles at room temperature. The modeling (Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption) and the quantification (UV-vis absorption and thermogravimetric analysis) of CA coverage enable us to rigorously determine the degree of functionalization and conduct thorough cold sintering kinetics investigations as a function of CA coverage using a dilatometer. Microstructure is observed with electron microscopy techniques to determine the grain and grain boundary interfaces that result with the competition of surfactant coverage and densification driven by the dissolution and reprecipitation processes at the interfaces. A mechanism with the retardation of cold sintering kinetics is discussed based on these experimental observations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number184102
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number18
StatePublished - May 14 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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