Surrogate Alcohol or Nonbeverage Alcohol Consumption: The Surrogate Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ)

Ariela Green, Daniel Neff, Greg Giuliano, Nathan Lee, Rachel Turchin, Elisabeth J.S. Kunkel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Diagnosis and treatment of alcohol use disorders and their sequelae are common clinical questions for the consultation-liaison psychiatrist. At an urban, academic medical center, the authors consulted on several patients whose consumption of alcohol included nonbeverage forms of alcohol, (described in the literature as surrogate alcohols, nonbeverage alcohols, e.g., mouthwash). Methods: The authors describe 4 patients who presented with surrogate alcohol consumption. The authors review the clinical issues and literature related to surrogate alcohol use. The authors describe the array of substances, which either contain ethanol, but are not intended for drinking, or which contain other intoxicating alcohols (e.g., methanol), that are consumed in lieu of traditional beverage alcohol. Furthermore, the authors discuss standard medical treatment interventions for ethanol and non–ethanol based alcohols. The authors propose a screening tool, the surrogate alcohol questionnaire, a tool to facilitate better recognition of surrogate alcohol use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)349-357
Number of pages9
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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