Surrogate endpoint biomarkers for cervical cancer chemoprevention trials

Mack T. Ruffin, Mohammed S. Ogaily, Carolyn M. Johnston, Lucie Gregoire, Wayne D. Lancaster, Dean E. Brenner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Cervical intraepithelia neoplasia (CIN) represents a spectrum of epithelial changes that provide an excellent model for developing chemopreventive interventions for cervical cancer. Possible drug effect surrogate endpoint biomarkers are dependent on the agent under investigation. Published and preliminary clinical reports suggest retinoids and carotenoids are effective chemopreventive agents for CIN. Determination of plasma and tissue pharmacology of these agents and their metabolites could serve as drug effect intermediate endpoints. In addition, retinoic acid receptors could serve as both drug and biological effect intermediate endpoints. Possible biological effect surrogate endpoint biomarkers include cytomorphological parameters, proliferation markers, genomic markers, regulatory markers, and differentiation. Given the demonstrated causality of human papillomavirus (HPV) for cervical cancer, establishing the relationship to HPV will be an essential component of any biological intermediate endpoint biomarker. The pathologic effect surrogate endpoint biomarker for cervical cancer is CIN, used clinically for years. The desired effect for chemopreventive trials is complete regression or prevention of progression. In planning chemopreventive trials, investigators need to consider spontaneous regression rates, the subjective nature of detecting CIN, and the impact of biopsy on regression. If intermediate endpoint biomarkers that met the above criteria were available for cervical cancer, then new chemopreventive agents could be rapidly explored. The efficacy of these new agents could be determined with a moderate number of subjects exposed to minimal risk over an acceptable amount of time. The impacts on health care for women would be significant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-124
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of cellular biochemistry
Issue number23 S
StatePublished - 1995

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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