With a growing sense of urgency for sustainability actions among consumers and most governments around the world, businesses operating in today's global supply chain are under pressure to operate in sustainable manners. Among a wide array of supply chains and logistics activities, the most visible and environmentally damaging element is extensive freight transportation. Two issues pertinent to freight transport activities that are at the center of attention in both public and private sectors are greenhouse gas emissions created by such activities and their dependence on finite petroleum resources. Freight transport-related sustainability issues notwithstanding, transportation roles in national economic welfare and competitiveness in the global market are at stake in addressing the issues. The future of freight transportation will involve a balancing act that, on the one hand, it promotes global competitiveness and economic welfare by ensuring that freight is moved efficiently and reliably within today's global supply chain context. On the other hand, it must ensure that its impacts on the environment are maintained at an appropriate level. As strategies to enhance the sustainability performance of freight transportation continue to be excogitated, the evolving nature necessitates an understanding of the developments. Based on a constant comparison analysis of relevant literature, this paper proffers a conceptualization of strategies currently employed and ideas proposed to promote joint economic-environmental sustainability of freight transportation. It is intended to render a framework for further research and dialogue among public agencies, the industry and academicians as to how the issue of sustainability in the freight transportation context should be addressed to assure long-term success.