Malaria, a complex and deadly parasitic infectious disease, is a huge public health problem in many endemic countries around the globe. The prevailing extensive resistance of malaria parasites to traditional drugs and emergence of resistance to the currently used frontline artemisinin-based chemotherapy calls for the development of new drugs. Towards this objective and since compounds containing the dibenzazepine moiety are effective in treating both gametocyte and asexual stage malaria parasites, including multi drug resistant parasites, a library of dibenzazepine tethered 3,5-disubstituted isoxazolines was synthesised via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. An additional diversified group of dibenzazepine derivatives were accessed by Suzuki coupling of one of the above dibenzazepine derivatives with various organoboronic acids. All compounds were structurally characterized and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. They exhibited good to excellent inhibitory activity against the growth of drug-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with IC50 values ranging from 0.2 to 7.7 μM. About 50% of the compounds were either minimally or not toxic to human cell lines. Five of the compounds (6j, 6k, 8c, 8k and 8l) that highly inhibited the parasite growth were further assessed for antimalarial activity using an additional chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and two chloroquine-resistant (W2 and 7G8) P. falciparum strains. These compounds were effective against all four strains (3D7, D6, W2 and 7G8), exhibiting IC50 values of 0.1 to 1.75 μM. The dibenzazepines were identified to target the metalloamino-peptidase of parasites. Molecular docking and dynamics simulation studies were performed to understand the binding mode and binding strengths of the selected compounds with the enzyme. In agreement with their excellent antimalarial activity, the data suggested that the compounds can strongly bind to the active site of the enzyme.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Chemistry
- General Chemical Engineering