Synthesis of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox superconductors via direct oxidation of metallic precursors

Yun Zhang, Carl C. Koch, Justin Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox(Bi2212)/Ag multifilamentary wires are manufactured via the powder-in-tube process using oxide powders. After deformation, the wires undergo a partial-melt process, resulting in a complex, heterogeneous microstructure containing multiple secondary phases and porosity, limiting the wires' electrical and mechanical performance. Here, an alternative approach using the direct conversion of metallic precursors (MPs) to Bi2212 is studied. The formation of metallic precursor powders via a mechanical alloy is discussed. The MP powder is then converted to superconducting Bi2212 through a simple two-step heat treatment. By introducing oxygen at a temperature at which Bi2212 is in a stable phase, and holding at an elevated temperature for a sufficient time, the metallic precursors are oxidized and transformed into Bi2212. Several factors that impact the formation and growth of Bi2212 grains are discussed. Peak temperature, holding time and heating rate are shown to affect the MP →Bi2212 conversion, the Bi2201 content and the Bi2212 morphology and density. It is found that Bi2Sr2CuOy (Bi2201) can be the only phase impurity after heat treatment, which is quite different from what is observed in partial-melt processed wires derived from oxide precursors. Lastly, the microstructure at the sample/silver interface suggests larger size and preferred orientation of Bi2212 grains with the aid of a silver surface. Implications for MP Bi2212 wires are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number055016
JournalSuperconductor Science and Technology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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