Synthesis of PZT fine particles using Ti3+ precursor at a low hydrothermal temperature of 110 °c

Seok Han Kim, Sridhar Komarneni

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16 Scopus citations


Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fine particles (80 nm to 0.8 μm) were prepared by hydrothermal method using a Ti3+ precursor, TiCl 3. In contrast with conventional hydrothermal methods using Ti 4+-reagents, pure PZT particles without lead titanate (PTO) impurities were synthesized using the Ti3+-reagent at a low temperature of 110 °C which is lower than the previously reported temperatures of 160 and 130 °C, using Ti4+-reagents of TiO 2 and TiCl4, respectively. Additionally, the crystallization time using the Ti3+-reagent is shorter than those using Ti4+-reagents at the same temperature of 140 °C. The high reaction rate of the Ti3+-reagent containing gels prepared here is probably due to the presence of much more defects in their PTO intermediates. The present hydrothermal method using Ti3+ precursor could lead to energy savings because of low temperature synthesis and the present method is potentially useful for non-pressurized equipment in manufacturing plants for synthesizing PZT particles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1101-1107
Number of pages7
JournalCeramics International
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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