T2D and Depression Risk Gene Proteasome Modulator 9 is Linked to Insomnia

Han Hao, Michael J. Haas, Rongling Wu, Claudia Gragnoli

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7 Scopus citations


Insomnia increases type-2 diabetes (T2D) risk. The 12q24 locus is linked to T2D, depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety. At the 12q24 locus, the Proteasome-Modulator 9 (PSMD9) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs74421874 [intervening sequence (IVS) 3+nt460-G>A], rs3825172 (IVS3+nt437-C>T) and rs14259 (E197G-A>G) are linked to: T2D, depression, anxiety, maturity-onset-diabetes-of the young 3/MODY3, obesity, waist circumference, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, T2D-macrovascular disease, T2D-microvascular disease, T2D-neuropathy, T2D-carpal-tunnel syndrome, T2D-nephropathy, T2D-retinopathy and non-diabetic retinopathy. PSMD9 SNP rs1043307/rs14259 (E197G-A>G) plays a role in anti-depressant therapy response, depression and schizophrenia. We aimed at determining PSMD9 rs74421874/rs3825172/rs14259 SNPs potential linkage to primary insomnia and sleep hours in T2D families. We recruited 200 Italian T2D families phenotyping them for primary insomnia and sleep hours per night. PSMD9-T2D-risk SNPs rs74421874/rs3825172 and rs1043307/rs14259 were tested for linkage with insomnia and sleep hours. Non-parametric-linkage analysis, linkage-disequilibrium-model analysis, single-SNP analysis, cluster-based-parametric analysis, quantitative-trait and variant-component analysis were performed using Merlin software. To validate data, 1000 replicates were executed for the significant non-parametric data. PSMD9 rs74421874 (IVS3+nt460-G>A), rs3825172 (IVS3+nt437-C>T) and rs1043307/rs14259 (E197G-A>G) SNPs are linked to insomnia in our Italian families.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number12032
JournalScientific reports
StatePublished - Jul 13 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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